"Within several years I expect to develop a long range
modular/integrated aircar that is affordable to purchase
and economical in fuel consumption.
My first publication was in the November 1988 edition of
"Kitplanes Magazine". Since then I have modernized the
concept, using for a road module a narrow quadricicle.It will be 40' inches wide and will have a 1+2+1 place
configuration , or will seat 3 adults in tandem.
"Autocraft 011SATS As A Roadable"
It will have
a tilt steering control operated by the pilot when on the
road instead of the assimmetric trike of the earlier model.
The tilt control system now has a patent pending and this
version is described in SAE Paper 1999-01-2893.
The paper is available on line at the
The paper also deals with the economic competitiveness of the aerocar with both a car and an airliner.
"Autocraft 011SATS In Flight"
The vehicle is an "integrated" as it can be converted to a
roadable configuration and vice versa by the push of a
button. At the same time it could be a "modular" as the
flight module could be removed easily if the vehicle is
needed for a long period of road use. Since the flight
module will be expensive, it is important to have it on
the road a minimal amount of time, to diminish the risk of
damage and to diminish insurance expenses.
The "Modular" principle also permits the use of the flight
module as a piece of corporate property, purchased for business use.
Although 50 flight hours per person per year is a rather high amount of time for the use of an aircraft for personal aviation, it is insufficient economically for use as a business aircraft.
The long range capability of this aircraft also suggests that a private owner on vacation could fly to any
destination on the earth, and have the freedom to
move while there.
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After the first version, I modernized the concept twice.
The first was for homebuilders. This version uses the wing that is selling in a US kit glider of Russian origin: the Russia AC4-KC.
The kit is distributed by CinCo Enterprises, Inc. This information was published in the December 2001 edition of "Kitplanes", (Page 32).
Certainly in this case this wing should be significally strenghtened as take off weight now is higher.
Take off weight is as much as 860kg.
Engines - Two Yanmar D 27 outboard turbocharged diesel engines
Engine rating - 800 cubic centimeters volume, providing up to 50HP each.
Wing Span -12.6 meters
Main Wing Area -7.8 square meters
Forward Main Wing sweep - 5 degrees
Canard Wing Span - 4 meters
Canard Area -1 square meter
Cruise CL/CD -24
Max cruise speed (TAS) - 195kt at an altitude of 31,000feet
Max range - 3,800 nautical miles on 160kg of fuel
Approach Speed - 70 Knots Per Hour
Take Off & Landing Distance (ISA) - 300 meters
The high speed needed for long range flight is acheived by
using significantly high altitudes and a pressurized cabin.
It is also possible to install two big floats and use
the vehicle as a recreational trimaran vessel under sail.
The outer wing panels could be used for this purpose, or the vessel could cruise using the engines. In this case the
vehicle becomes a flying yacht not just a flying car.
In this configuration max cruise is 180 kt (TAS).
"Autocraft 011M On The Road"
This performance is achieved by using high aspect and high CL/CD ratios. The aircraft now has a rather low
indicated air speed ( cruise at 117 kt) and a low flight weight, but this can be achieved using rather low powered, inexpensive engines.
"The Autocraft 011M"
This photo shows the
with the outer wing
panels set as sails.
This version could
logically be called
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The second modernization of the concept is in
compliance with the US SATS Program and its Eclipse 500
project, using landing strips of the same length.
This version is published in Aviaglobus Magazine, Issue
In this case the wing area is lessened to 4.9 square meters, including the canard.
Wing Span -10 meters
Wing Profile -NACA 643-618
Forward Wing Sweep -9 degrees
Engines to be used are two Yanmar D36 turbocharged outboard diesels of 1100 cubic centimeters each, providing up to 75HP each.
In this case Maximum Cruise Speeds move up to
330 Kts at 40,000 feet
225 Kts at 20,000 feet
185 Kts at 10,000 feet
Maximum Range is 3000 Nautical miles.
Performance at CL/CD=25 (economical cruise) would be:
300 Kts at 40,000 feet
265 Kts at 36,000 feet
235 Kts at 30,000 feet
200 Kts at 20,000 feet
170 Kts at 10,000 feet
Range is 3500 nautical miles with
45 minutes fuel reserve.
Performance with Floats at CL/CD=20 would be:
280 Kts at 40,000 feet
250 Kts at 36,000 feet
220 Kts at 30,000 feet
195 Kts at 20,000 feet
160 Kts at 10,000 feet
Approach Speed - 85 Knots
Range with floats is 2900 nautical miles with
45 minutes fuel reserve.
This is a model of the
"The Autocraft 011SATS"
without the road module. In this configuration it could be used as a recreational catamaran having one engine, with a stretched capron network for a deck.
Required strip length for take-off and landing (including the provision for failure of one engine) is 650m in standard conditions. The maximum cruise height could require two stage (turbo-root) supercharging or perhaps one stage if using the new technology turbochargers. In Oct 2002 Bruce Bohannon achieved a height record of 41,300 feet in a light aircraft using a piston engine with a one stage turbocharger, as reported in Sport Aviation Magazine of December 2002, page #23. This engine would be similar to the ones planned for use in the Autocraft and his success tends to confirm the concept. This last version is called the "Autocraft 011 SATS" and is considered to be more suitable for industrial quantity production."
- - - - -
"The Autocraft 011M in Flight"
Yuri Krassin may be reached by email at -
Yuri Krassin is a trained aerodynamicist living in Moscow, Russia and has strong credentials in both automobile and aircraft design. He first became interested in the idea of a long range aircar in the 1960's when he was a designer of race cars at the Russian Research and Development Automotive Center NAMI. He has Automobile Design Degree from the Automobile & Road University (MADI) and Aerodynamics Degree from the Mech/Math faculty of the Mosow State University (MGU).
He often participated in automobile rallies in Russia and later worked at GosNII GA - the recearch and test flight center for Civil Aviation (airliners) in Sheremetievo, Moscow. He worked there as a test flight engineer (flying) and later became a Flight Chief of Group dealing with aircraft icing as well as aircraft flight in turbulence and flight in wind shear.
He started working seriously on the idea of an aircar in the 1980's. The first result was his theoretical work on aircraft flaps. His article "Flow Over an Airfoil for Jets" was published in the Journal of Aircraft in March of 1989. It cited an aircraft about the size of his present "Autocraft" design. The result of his work was a reduction in take-off and landing distance to 220m from 360m. Yuri also has an interest in VTOL aircraft as cited in the SAE paper above.
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